菩薩 (Bodhisattva) 就是覺有情: 覺悟的一個眾生; 他不迷了 – 是「諸惡不作,眾善奉行」

Finally I find the explanation of what Bodhisattva means; the short explanation is 菩薩(Bodhisattva) 就是覺有情: 覺悟的一個眾生,他不迷了 – 是「諸惡不作,眾善奉行」; in English: A Bodhisattva is also defined as “an enlightened sentient being.” The Bodhisattva is the same as other living beings, except that he is enlightened. Being enlightened, he “does no evil and practices all good deeds.  Source: 藥師琉璃光如來本願功德經淺釋 Sutra of the Merit and Virtue of the Past Vows of Medicine Master Vaidurya Light Tathagata with Commentary


「菩薩」這兩個字,我們就應該知道,這是大乘裏邊一個聖人。菩薩也是半梵語,具足就叫菩提薩埵,英文又叫 Bodhisattva ,翻譯到中文,它就叫覺有情。有情就是眾生之一,菩薩是九法界眾生之一,也是四聖法界裏邊一個聖人。怎麼叫覺有情呢?就是說他用這個覺悟的智慧,來度脫一切的有情眾生。有血有氣的都叫有情;沒有血沒有氣的,那叫無情。好像一切的植物,這叫無情,可是無情它們都有性,它們都在佛的大光明藏裏邊來生長,所以雖然是無情,可是有性。



English version of the above quote:

A “Bodhisattva” is a sage of the Great Vehicle. The full Chinese transliteration of the Sanskrit term is putisaduo, but the Chinese use the abbreviated form pusa. “Bodhisattva” means “one who enlightens sentient beings.” Bodhisattvas are one of the nine Dharma Realms of living beings and also one of the Four Dharma Realms of Sages. A Bodhisattva uses his enlightened wisdom to rescue and liberate all sentient beings, beings with blood and breath. Although beings without blood and breath, such as plants, are considered insentient, they do have natures, and they are born and grow within the Buddhas’ great bright light treasury.

A Bodhisattva is also defined as “an enlightened sentient being.” The Bodhisattva is the same as other living beings, except that he is enlightened. Being enlightened, he “does no evil and practices all good deeds.” He has no bad habits or faults. Having attained supreme wisdom, he is not confused anymore, so he does not act out of ignorance.

Ordinary living beings always bungle things up in their ignorance. They don’t have any real wisdom. When confronted with a problem, they don’t know how to handle it, because they are unenlightened. Those of the Two Vehicles are self-enlightened–they have come to understanding and are no longer confused. However, they have not tried to teach other people the method by which they themselves became enlightened. Bodhisattvas are self-enlightened, and they also share their enlightened wisdom with other living beings, teaching those beings to become enlightened through the method they themselves used. Bodhisattvas enlighten themselves and also enlighten others, but their enlightenment is not complete. A Buddha is one who has enlightened himself, enlightened others, and perfected his enlightened practice. Since he is perfect in the three enlightenments and replete with the myriad virtues he is called a Buddha.

Sinus Surgery

I recently become interested in issues and treatments related to sinusitis (inflammation of a nasal sinus).  I quote the entire article of “Sinus Surgery” from this web page Sinus Surgery.


Sinuses Diagram, Source: Sinuses Diagram


The ear, nose, and throat specialist will prescribe many medications (antibiotics, decongestants, nasal steroid sprays, antihistamines) and procedures (flushing) for treating acute sinusitis. There are occasions when physician and patient find that the infections are recurrent and/or non-responsive to the medication. When this occurs, surgery to enlarge the openings that drain the sinuses is an option.

A recommendation for sinus surgery in the early 20th century would easily alarm the patient. In that era, the surgeon would have to perform an invasive procedure, reaching the sinuses by entering through the cheek area, often resulting in scarring and possible disfigurement. Today, these concerns have been eradicated with the latest advances in medicine. A trained surgeon can now treat sinusitis with minimal discomfort, a brief convalescence, and few complications.

A clinical history of the patient will be created before any surgery is performed. A careful diagnostic workup is necessary to identify the underlying cause of acute or chronic sinusitis, which is often found in the anterior ethmoid area, where the maxillary and frontal sinuses connect with the nose. This may necessitate a sinus computed tomography (CT) scan (without contrast), nasal physiology (rhinomanometry and nasal cytology), smell testing, and selected blood tests to determine an operative strategy. Note: Sinus X–rays have limited utility in the diagnosis of acute sinusitis and are of no value in the evaluation of chronic sinusitis.

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS):
Developed in the 1950s, the nasal endoscope has revolutionized sinusitis surgery. In the past, the surgical strategy was to remove all sinus mucosa from the major sinuses. The use of an endoscope is linked to the theory that the best way to obtain normal healthy sinuses is to open the natural pathways to the sinuses. Once an improved drainage system is achieved, the diseased sinus mucosa has an opportunity to return to normal.

FESS involves the insertion of the endoscope, a very thin fiber-optic tube, into the nose for a direct visual examination of the openings into the sinuses. With state of the art micro-telescopes and instruments, abnormal and obstructive tissues are then removed. In the majority of cases, the surgical procedure is performed entirely through the nostrils, leaving no external scars. There is little swelling and only mild discomfort.

The advantage of the procedure is that the surgery is less extensive, there is often less removal of normal tissues, and can frequently be performed on an outpatient basis. After the operation, the patient will sometimes have nasal packing. Ten days after the procedure, nasal irrigation may be recommended to prevent crusting.

Image guided surgery:
The sinuses are physically close to the brain, the eye, and major arteries, always areas of concern when a fiber optic tube is inserted into the sinus region. The growing use of a new technology, image guided endoscopic surgery, is alleviating that concern. This type of surgery may be recommended for severe forms of chronic sinusitis, in cases when previous sinus surgery has altered anatomical landmarks, or where a patient’s sinus anatomy is very unusual, making typical surgery difficult.

Image guidance is a near-three-dimensional mapping system that combines computed tomography (CT) scans and real-time information about the exact position of surgical instruments using infrared signals. In this way, surgeons can navigate their surgical instruments through complex sinus passages and provide surgical relief more precisely. Image guidance uses some of the same stealth principles used by the United States armed forces to guide bombs to their target.

Caldwell Luc operation:
Another option is the Caldwell-Luc operation, which relieves chronic sinusitis by improving the drainage of the maxillary sinus, one of the cavities beneath the eye. The maxillary sinus is entered through the upper jaw above one of the second molar teeth. A “window” is created to connect the maxillary sinus with the nose, thus improving drainage. The operation is named after American physician George Caldwell and French laryngologist Henry Luc and is most often performed when a malignancy is present in the sinus cavity.