Learning about Thunderbolt 3 and USB-C connections from “USB Type-C and Thunderbolt 3: One port to connect them all” on https://www.cnet.com/how-to/usb-type-c-thunderbolt-3-one-cable-to-connect-them-all/
. Here’s how Thunderbolt 3 is different from its predecessors:
The Mini DisplayPort connection type has been ditched in favor of a USB-C connection type.All Thunderbolt 3 cables will work as USB-C cables.All USB-C cables will work as Thunderbolt 3 cables as long as they are good quality cables.Thunderbolt 3 has a top data transfer speed of 40Gbps as long as the cable is 0.5m (1.6 ft.) or shorter.For 1m (3.2 ft.) or longer cables, Thunderbolt 3 supports passive (cheaper) ones that have a top speed of 20Gbps, and active cables (more expensive) that retain the 40Gbps speed.Thunderbolt 3 is backward-compatible with earlier versions of Thunderbolt, but due to the new port type, adapters are required to use legacy Thunderbolt devices.Any USB-C device (like a Google Pixel) plugged into a Thunderbolt 3 port will function normally.Since Thunderbolt 3 devices use discrete Thunderbolt chips to function, they will not function if plugged into a USB-C port.All versions of Thunderbolt allow for daisy-chaining up to six devices together to a host and in addition to data, can also carry Hi-Def video and audio signals.
. USB 3.1 (sometimes refereed to as USB 3.1 Gen 2., [or now called SuperSpeed+ or SuperSpeed USB 10 Gbps)): Released on July 26, 2013, USB 3.1 doubles the speed of USB 3.0 to 10Gbps (now called SuperSpeed+ or SuperSpeed USB 10 Gbps), making it as fast as the original Thunderbolt standard. USB 3.1 is backward-compatible with USB 3.0 and USB 2.0. USB 3.1 has three power profiles (according to USB Power Delivery Specification), and allows larger devices to draw power from a host: up to 2A at 5V (for a power consumption of up to 10W), and optionally up to 5A at either 12V (60W) or 20V (100W). The first USB 3.1 products are expected to be available in late 2016, and will mostly use USB Type-C design.
Quote from “How to Write to NTFS Drives on a Mac by Chris Hoffman @chrisbhoffman, March 15, 2018” on https://www.howtogeek.com/236055/how-to-write-to-ntfs-drives-on-a-mac/
Paragon NTFS for Mac costs
$19.95 and offers a ten-day free trial. It’ll install cleanly and
easily on modern versions of macOS, including macOS 10.12 Sierra and
Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan. It really does “just work”, so it’s the best
option if you’re willing to pay a small amount of money for
You also won’t have to fiddle with terminal commands to manually
mount partitions, insecurely mount partitions automatically, or deal
with potential corruption as you will with the free drivers below. If
you need this feature, paying for software that does it properly is
worth it. We cannot stress this enough.
Apple’s macOS can read from Windows-formatted NTFS drives, but can’t write to them out of the box. Here are a few solutions for getting full read/write access to NTFS drives.
This could be useful if you want to write to a Boot Camp partition on your Mac, as Windows system partitions must use the NTFS file system. However, for external drives, you should probably use exFAT instead. macOS can natively read and write to exFAT drives, just like Windows can.
There are several options for this, and you’ll need to choose one:
Three Options: Paid Third-Party Drivers: There are third-party NTFS drivers for Mac that you can install, and they’ll work quite well. These are paid solutions, but they’re easy to install and should offer better performance than the free solutions below. Free Third-Party Drivers: There’s a free and open-source NTFS driver you can install on a Mac to enable write support. Unfortunately, this take a bit of extra work to install, especially on Macs with the new System Integrity Protection feature, added in 10.11 El Capitan. It’s slower than paid solutions and automatically mounting NTFS partitions in read-write mode is a security risk. Apple’s Experimental NTFS-Write Support: The macOS operating system includes experimental support for writing to NTFS drives. However, it’s off by default and requires some messing around in the terminal to enable it. It isn’t guaranteed to work properly and could potentially cause problems with your NTFS file system. In fact, we’ve had it corrupt data before. We really don’t recommend using this. It’s disabled by default for a reason.
We highly recommend paying for a third-party NTFS driver if you need to do this as the other solutions don’t work as well and are more work to set up.
Quote from “What’s the Difference Between GPT and MBR When Partitioning a Drive? Published on March 17, 2016 by Rajesh Kumar H Tiwari” on https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/whats-difference-between-gpt-mbr-when-partitioning-drive-tiwari
GPT brings with it many advantages, but MBR is still the most compatible and is still necessary in some cases. This isn’t a Windows-only standard — Mac OS X, Linux, and other operating systems can also use GPT.What Do GPT and MBR Do?
MBR (Master Boot Record) and GPT (GUID Partition Table) are two different ways of storing the partitioning information on a drive. This information includes where partitions start and begin, so your operating system knows which sectors belong to each partition and which partition is bootable. This is why you have to choose MBR or GPT before creating partitions on a drive.
MBR’s Limitations MBR standards for Master Boot Record. It was introduced with IBM PC DOS 2.0 in 1983.
It’s called Master Boot Record because the MBR is a special boot sector located at the beginning of a drive. This sector contains a boot loader for the installed operating system and information about the drive’s logical partitions. The boot loader is a small bit of code that generally loads the larger boot loader from another partition on a drive. If you have Windows installed, the initial bits of the Windows boot loader reside here — that’s why you may have torepair your MBR if it’s overwritten and Windows won’t boot. If you have Linux installed, the GRUB boot loader will typically be located in the MBR.
MBR works with disks up to 2 TB in size, but it can’t handle disks with more than 2 TB of space. MBR also only supports up to four primary partitions — if you want more, you have to make one of your primary partitions an “extended partition” and create logical partitions inside it. This is a silly little hack and shouldn’t be necessary.
MBR became the industry standard everyone used for partitioning and booting from disks. Developers have been piling on hacks like extended partitions ever since.GPT’s Advantages
GPT stands for GUID Partition Table. It’s a new standard that’s gradually replacing MBR. It’s associated with UEFI — UEFI replaces the clunky old BIOS with something more modern, and GPT replaces the clunky old MBR partitioning system with something more modern. It’s called GUID Partition Table because every partition on your drive has a “globally unique identifier,” or GUID — a random string so long that every GPT partition on earth likely has its own unique identifier.
This system doesn’t have MBR’s limits. Drives can be much, much larger and size limits will depend on the operating system and its file systems. GPT allows for a nearly unlimited amount of partitions, and the limit here will be your operating system — Windows allows up to 128 partitions on a GPT drive, and you don’t have to create an extended partition.
On an MBR disk, the partitioning and boot data is stored in one place. If this data is overwritten or corrupted, you’re in trouble. In contrast, GPT stores multiple copies of this data across the disk, so it’s much more robust and can recover if the data is correupted. GPT also stores cyclic redundancy check (CRC) values to check that its data is intact — if the data is corrupted, GPT can notice the problem and attempt to recover the damaged data from another location on the disk. MBR had no way of knowing if its data was corrupted — you’d only see there was a problem when the boot process failed or your drive’s partitions vanished.
Windows 10 October 2018 Update now available
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Create Windows 10 installation media
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Quote from “Here’s how to format USB on Mac” on https://macpaw.com/how-to/format-usb-drive-on-mac
The main reason for formatting a USB drive as Fat32 on a Mac is that you want to be able to use the drive on a Windows PC, as well as a Mac — perhaps to transfer files between the two machines. You may also be preparing the drive for use as, say, a storage device for a media player or to record TV programs on a TV with a USB port.
The fact that Fat32 can be read from and written to on both Mac and Windows makes it very versatile. However, there is a significant limitation — individual files have a maximum size of 4GB. So, if you’re using the USB drive to store large video files, you may run into trouble. There is a solution, however, exFAT. Unlike FAT32, exFAT doesn’t have a maximum file limit. Better still, it can be read from and written to on any Mac running Mac OS X Snow Leopard or later and on Windows.
Quote from “The Ultimate Guide to Reinstalling Windows From Scratch by David Murphy” on https://lifehacker.com/the-ultimate-guide-to-reinstalling-windows-from-scratch-1832897572
Preserve whatever you don’t want to download later
I’m lucky, in that I can dump most of my critical files (my games) across a few secondary hard disk drives and SSDs on my desktop PC. I don’t do this for the speed or capacity boosts (my primary drive, a 500GB SSD, would be overwhelmed by my Steam collection, whereas my secondary 2TB drive is perfect for my pile o’ games). I also do it because it’s a lot easier to reinstall Windows 10 when I don’t have to worry about reinstalling hundreds of gigabytes worth of games, too.
If you can, I recommend keeping your games off your primary hard drive whenever possible. In my case, I dump everything I can easily redownload onto separate drives. That includes games on Steam, Battle.net, Origin, Epic Games, GoG, et cetera.
Make a backup once you’ve finished the basics
Once you have a general version of Windows 10 set up to your liking—all your preferences are set and all the regular programs you use are installed—I think it’s a great idea to image your entire installation before you start downloading a bunch of crap from the web or what-have-you.
Go grab Macrium Reflect and create a backup image of your entire C:\ drive, assuming that’s where you installed Windows and your programs. This way, you’ll have a great “operating system + everything I like” version of Windows that you can use the next time you want to restore your system back to a “clean” version of the OS.
Quote from “Nine Common Hard Drive Failure Symptoms Posted by Will Ascenzo On January 12th, 2017 ” on https://www.acrbo.com/blog/nine-common-hard-drive-failure-symptoms
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 1: Frequent Slowdowns, Freezes, and Crashes
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 2: Frequent and Intermittent Boot Errors
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 3: Long Access Times
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 4: The Incredible Vanishing Files
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 5: S.M.A.R.T. Warnings Hard drives today contain S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology), a monitoring system that keeps track of the drive’s vital signs. S.M.A.R.T. keeps an eye open for signs of potential failures. When hard drives age themselves to death, warning signs you might not pick up on include increased heat output, noise level, or bad sectors on its platters. S.M.A.R.T. does pick up on these things, though. If things start looking dire, S.M.A.R.T. can send an SOS to your computer to warn it—and therefore, you—of the drive’s intermittent failure… S.M.A.R.T. can only pick up on predictable failures—and not all hard drive failure symptoms are so predictable.)
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 6: Hard Drive Clicking
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 7: Hard Drive Beeping
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 8: Hard Drive Grinding or Screeching
. Hard Drive Failure Symptom 9: Hard Drive Not Spinning